EUROPEAN HISTORY 1770 - 1799


The Irish Orange Lodges are created to suppress freedom for Catholics.
In Canada the targets would change to Metis and Indians
France demands that priests give an oath of loyalty.


One English book suggests that frequent whippings may be a very bad practice.
This debate will go on into the twentieth century.
Slavery is in conformity with Natural law and the Word of God.

 

1770  

Most of the worst laws against Irish Catholics had been removed but in Ulster the Protestants formed the first Orange Lodges, a society which were against any freedom for the Catholics.  This movement would follow the migrating Irish into Canada causing much injustice to the Metis and other Native peoples.

It is believed that more than 500 tribes of Australian Aboriginals occupied the continent at this time.

1772  

Poland is partitioned by Prussia, Russia and Austria and Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774) is powerless to prevent it due to the Jesuit issue.  The pope abandoned the traditional support for the exiled Stuarts.

Lord Mansfield, the Lord Justice, reluctantly ruled on June 22, 1772 that there was no positive support for slavery in English law.

Captain James Cook (1728-1779) is sent to Antarctica to confirm its existence as recorded on ancient maps.  It is assumed this knowledge is as a result of the Chinese expeditions of 1405-1433.  Cook failed on this mission but could assume that if it existed it would be a frozen land. 

1773  

The Bourbon states are preparing for a complete break with Rome over the Jesuit schism.  Empress Maria Theresa (1740-1780) hitherto pro-Jesuit declared her neutrality on the issue.  Under threat of war by France, Spain and the Two Sicily's the Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774) abolished the Jesuit order for its inability to fulfill its objectives and the twenty three thousand members to refuge where they could mostly in Prussia and Russia.  The Jesuit Catholic School System is seriously disrupted.  France returned Avignon and Venaissin to the holy see and Naples returned Benevento and Pontecorvo but with humiliating conditions.

December:   Maria Theresa, Empress of Hungary, orders all Gypsy (Romani) children over five in the Palatinate of Pressburg and at Fahlendorf to be taken from their parents. They are transported to distant villages and assigned to peasants to bring them up for a stipend of 12-18 florins a year. Most of the children run away to rejoin their families, who take refuge in the mountains or disappear in the plains.

1774  

Louis XV reigned (1715-1774) as King of France yielding to his grandson Louis XVI (1774-1792) who is considered weak, irresolute and awkward.

1775 

Pius VI alias Giovanni Angelo Braschi (1775-1799) is elected pope.  The pro-Jesuit and anti-Jesuit parties both supported his election.  He revived nepotism assigning substantial allowances to his relatives.  Sir William Blackstone said to deny the existence of witchcraft and sorcery is to contradict the revealed word of God.

James Watt improved the steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen (1663–1729), using patents developed by Thomas Savery (1650?–1715), and  John Calley (d. 1725), also known as John Cawley was in partnership with Newcomen in 1705 to build the first prototype.  Matthew Boulton (1728–1809), owner of the Soho Engineering Works at Birmingham, and he and Watt began the manufacture of steam engines this year.

This year marked the last known death of an accused witch in Europe.  It is estimated that 100,000 witches were executed in Germany from the thirteen century and 30,000 were executed in France just during the reign of Henry III in the late sixteen century.

January 11:  Nine old women were burned as witches for causing bad harvests in Kalisk, Poland.

November 1:  A tsunami with (6 M) 20 foot waves struck Portugal, Spain and Morocco.

1780  

British Parliament passed the Catholic Relief Act, abolishing anti-Catholic legislation and Lord George Gordon led a mob of several thousand Protestant demonstrators against the government resulting in a riot, Catholic Churches are burned, a total of thirty six separate fires are reported.

Serfdom is abolished in Bohemia and Hungary this year.

Sheep were introduced to Ireland from Scotland.

A four year war between England and the Dutch started this year.

Catherine II of Russia (1762-1796) provided refuge for the Jesuits even setting up a novitiate defying Papal Orders.

1781  

Joseph II (1765-1790) influenced by the Febronianism and the Enlightenment movements set up the Josephinism system involving complete religious toleration.  It advocated restriction of papal intervention to the spiritual sphere and the subjection in all respects of Church to State.  The Toleration Edict suppressed certain religious orders and transferred monasteries from the jurisdiction of the pope to that of the diocesan bishops.  The backlash created by the Jesuits spread throughout Europe.  Grand Duke Leopold II (Emperor 1790-17912) laid plans to make the church independent of the pope.

Some suggest the last execution of the Spanish Inquisition occurred this year.

1782  

In violation of the 1773 agreement Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) put pressure on Frederick II (1740-1786) of Prussia and Catherine II (1762-1796) of Russia to accommodate the Jesuit fugitives.  He failed to persuade Catherine not to allow the Jesuit to initiate novices.

The Lord Justice of Britain Lord Mansfield ruled that slaves were legal jettison.  This in support of 132 Negroes being thrown alive into the sea, from on board an English Slave ship called Zong.  Luke Collingwood was master and James Kelsal first mate.

1783  

Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) in violation of the 1773 agreement secretly approved the continued existence of the Jesuit Order in Russia.

Spanish legislation reiterates previous orders. Gypsy (Gitano) dress, way of life, language is forbidden, and settlement is compulsory within ninety days. The name Gypsy (Gitano) is forbidden and is to be removed from all official documents. Restrictions on trade and place of residence of Gypsy (Gitanos) is lifted. Punishment for failure to observe restrictions is branding. Repeat offenders are sentenced to "death, with no appeal."

1785  

A Russian Government order first used the word Doukhobor to describe 90 people deported to Finland for their religious views against militarism.  This is the same Russian Orthodox sect that would flee to Canada.

1786  

Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) attempted to establish a nunciature at Munich and is defiantly informed by the German Archbishop that the bishops control the German Church and did not need papal intervention.  The synod of Pistoia led by Bishop Scipio de Ricci exempted bishops from the pope’s authority.  Scipio is forced to resign in 1794.

1786  

The 'Tracts Upon the Slave Trade' argued that Scriptural researches indicated that Africans were designed to be slaves in conformity with the principles of natural and revealed religion, delivered in the sacred writing of the 'Word of God'.

1788  

New South Wales (Australia) became a penal colony for Britain.  It is estimated that 161,000 English, Irish and other convicts were forced to settle there.   Prison transport ended in 1868.

1789  

(I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas Thomas born 1766, Andrews, Holborn, London, England sailed for York Factory 1789 in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company.

The Reform Burgesses of Aberdeen, Scotland and others spoke of reform, the Rights of Man and everywhere there is unrest, economic distress, and hope that slavery would be abolished.  The Scottish Chiefs treated the Clan lands as if it is their own, enclosing it and for the next sixty years forced thousands of Highlanders off their land.  Many went to Canada to begin a new life.  Others were forced into the cities and poverty.  The Royal Navy periodically over the next twenty years sent press-gangs to Orkney to force them into her service.  Many Orkney rushed to the Hudson Bay Company service to avoid this indenture system.

Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.

1790  

About this time, an (I)-McDougall born Arasack, Scotland, father of (II)-Donald McDougall, born 1818, sailed for Acadia and settled in Malignant Cove, Nova Scotia.  The French Constitution declared the dissolution of the clergy and all ecclesiastical orders.  The French Church clergy became salaried officials.

1791  

Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) condemned the French demand for clergy to give an oath of loyalty.  He denounced the French Constitution as schismatical, ordination of new bishops sacrilegious and suspended priests and prelates who had taken the loyalty oath.  The pope also condemned the Declaration of the Rights of Man issued in 1789.  France immediately annexed the papal states of Avignon and Venaisson.  The French Church is completely split.

1792  

Swedish King Gustavus III (1746-1792) is assassinated by his nobles.

Denmark becomes the first European country to abandon the practice of slave trading.

Plague kills 800,000 people in Egypt.

Cannibalism follows what they call 'the Skull Famine' in India.

The guillotine named after Joseph Ignace Guillotin, a French doctor and member of the Revolutionary National Assembly was first used in France this year to execute a highwayman.

April 20:  France declaired war on Austria, Prussia and Sardina, marking the start of the French revolutionary war.

May 18:  Russia invades Poland.

1793  

King Louis XVI (1774-1792) of France is guillotined.  France headed by Napoleon I (1804-1814) invaded the Low Country (Belgium and Holland) and England went to war.  Most of Europe fell under Napoleon's control.  The citizens of Nantes, France declared a Central Assembly of Resistance to Oppression.  The National Convention soon broke their counter revolutionary activity and guillotined over 1,000 citizens.  About 100 priests are tied face to face naked, placed in boats that are rowed to the middle of the river Loire and scuttled.  December 5 another 58 priests are gathered with the crowd saying, "fling all those buggers in the water."  Some say the total victims are 4,800 people.  Monaco is annexed to France having been independent for over 800 years.  The French Revolutionary government forbids the worship of God.  A French cult of the Supreme Being proclaimed the existence of the Supreme Being and the immorality of the soul.  They called on the French to celebrate nature, liberty and equality including the paternal as well as maternal view of the world.  It is noteworthy that Nantes, France during the 18th and 19th centuries originated 1,800 expeditions in the slave trade.

A Japanese volcano erupts killing 53,000 people.

February 1:  France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.

April 1:  The volcano Unsen in Japan erupted killing about 53,000 people.

November 10:  France outlawed the forced worship of God.

1794  

(I)-Thomas Thomas, born 1781, most likely Orkney, British Islands sailed for York Factory, Hudson Bay and is probably one of the Hospital Boys sold into the service of the Hudson Bay Company.  During this period most servants of the Company are from Orkney.

During a sixteen day period (July 12-28) 1,285 victims died on the guillotine in France directed by the Committee that is led by Robespierre.  He himself is executed July 29.

France orders all French colonies to free their slaves.

1795  

Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) spurned Spanish offers to mediate the schism between Rome and France.

Johann Blumenbach, one of the first anthropologists, endorsed the Linnaean categories of race but said, "One variety of mankind does so sensibly pass into the other, that you cannot mark out the limits between them"  He however put the Caucasians at the top of the heap by claiming the other races has descended from them.  He said Africans were Caucasians twice removed.  Modern genetics suggest Caucasians are twice removed from Africans.   Modern DNA studies show that the world's population is too homogeneous to divide into races.  This erroneous classification has led to the apartheid system in south Africa, the eugenic policies of North America and Nazi Germany and the history of slavery and segregation.

1796  

Napoleon Bonaparte occupied Milan and rejected the French demand that he withdraw his condemnation of the Civil Constitution and of the Revolution.  Napoleon then invaded the papal states and the pope had to accept peace terms involving vast indemnity, and the handing over of valuable manuscripts.

The future Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) shocked his congregation by declaring in a sermon that there is no necessarily conflict between Christianity and Democracy.

1798  

A hand book on rearing children in England went as far to suggest that severe and frequent whipping is, I think, a very bad practice yet girls are forced into tightly waistline clothes and gave them only little food to avoid unfashionably healthy appearance.

The French General Duphot is killed in a riot in Rome and the Directory ordered the occupation of the papal states.  General Louis Berthier entered Rome, proclaimed the Roman Republic and the deposition of Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) as head of the state and forced him to withdraw to Tuscany.  The Directory planned to banish him to Sardinia but the pope’s poor health ruled that out.  He would die a prisoner of the Republic.  Many assumed that the destruction of the holy see had been accomplished.

1799  

A plague hits North Africa killing 300,000 people.

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